Narcolepsy Physiology

By | September 13, 2018

To Sleep Perchance to Dream Crash Course Psychology 9

Comedian Mike Birbiglia was having troublewith sleep. Though not with the actual sleeping part onenight, while staying in a hotel, he dreamed that a guided missile was on its way to hisbed, and in his dream, he jumped out the window to escape it. Unfortunately, he also did this not in hisdream. From the second floor. And the window wasnot open. This little episode cost him 33 stitches anda trip to a sleep specialist. Mike now sleeps in zippedup mummy bags forhis own safety.

The lesson hereé Sleep is not some break timewhen your brain, or your body, just goes dormant. Far from it. In truth, sleep is just anotherstate of consciousness. And only in the past few decades have we begun to really plumbits depths from why we sleep in the first place, to what goes on in our brains whenwe do, to what happens when we can't sleep. And there is a lot that science has to sayabout your dreams! Talk about weird! It's like Sigmund Freudmeets Neil Gaiman. So, even though it may seem like you'redead to the world, when you sleep, your perceptual window remains slightly open.

And kinda like Mike Birbiglia's hotel roomwindow, a trip through it can make for a pretty wild ride. But for your safety and enjoyment, I'm hereto guide you through this state of consciousness, where you'll learn more than a few thingsabout human mind, including your own. And here's hoping you won't need any stitcheswhen we're through. INTRO Technically speaking, sleep is a periodic,natural, reversible and near total loss of consciousness, meaning it's different thanhibernation, being in a coma, or in say, an

anesthetic oblivion. Although we spend about a third of our livessleeping, and we know that it's essential to our health and survival, there still isn'ta scientific consensus for why we do it. Part of it probably has to do with simplerecuperation, allowing our neurons and other cells to rest and repair themselves. Sleepalso supports growth, because that's when our pituitary glands release growth hormones,which is why babies sleep all the time. Plus, sleep has all kinds of benefits for mentalfunction, like improving memory, giving our brains time to process the events of the day,and boosting our creativity.

But even if we're not quite sure of allthe reasons why we sleep, technology has given us great insight into how we sleep. And for that we can thank little Armond Aserinsky.One night in early 1950s Chicago, eightyearold Armond was tucked into his bed by his father.But this night, instead of getting a kiss on the forehead, little Armond got some electrodestaped to his face. Armond's dad was Eugene Aserinsky, a gradstudent looking to test out a new electroencephalograph, or EEG machine, that measures the brain'selectrical activity. That night, as his son slept peacefully, hewatched the machine go bonkers with brain

wave patterns, and after making sure thathis machine wasn't somehow broken discovered that the brain doesn't just quot;power downquot;during sleep, as most scientists thought. Instead, he had discovered the sleep stagewe now call REM or rapid eye movement, a perplexing period when the sleeping brain is buzzingwith activity, even though the body is in a deep slumber. Aserinsky and his colleague Nathaniel Kleitmanwent on to become pioneers of sleep research. Since then, sleep specialists armed with similartechnology have shown that we experience four distinct stages of sleep, each defined byunique brainwave patterns.

How Does Adderall Work

It can make you happy, suppress your appetite, reduce fatigue, increase your attention span, and it's used to treat narcolepsy, depression and ADHD. What magical substance does all of thisé Adderall. Reactions intro Over 25 million people worldwide use amphetamine, which is the active ingredient in Adderall.

Amphetamine has actually been around since the 1800s, and has a pretty neat history. First synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu, amphetamine appeared on the market in 1933 under the name“Benzedrine,� or Bennies for short. In 1943, the US army began issuing “pep pills� to fight battle fatigue and boost morale. These peppills were pure amphetamine,which is a stimulant.

By the end of World War II,American and British troops had shipped an estimated 150 million of these pills. Japanese and German troops also used these “peppills� and Hitler would get daily injections of amphetamine. American troops continued using amphetamine well into the Korean and Vietnam wars, but stopped once the drug was

no longer sold over the counter in 1956. Because, you know, unrestricted access to pure amphetamine is probably not a good idea. Today amphetamine is used in LOW doses primarily to treat… Wait. Whaté Oh. Right. Used to treat ADHD.

The majority of ADHD drugs stimulatethe central nervous system. You'd think it wouldn't make sense to treat hyperactivity and lack of focus by adding stimulation, but we'll let neuroscience expert Ryan Davison explain: “People with ADHD tend to have lower levels of dopamine, a key chemical in the brain's reward center.

This lack of dopamine means people with ADHD are constantly seeking stimulation. Amphetamine stimulates the release of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in the brain so those minor distractions don't cause you to lose focus.� Nerve cells and neurotransmitters act like they're at a middle school dance. Neurotransmitters like dopamine are on one side

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