The GABA receptor How does it work
And the last part here before we jump into these drugs is the structure and function of this GABA Chloride Ion Channel that we can see right here. So just taking a first look at it right, this is a GABA Chloride Ion Channel and the neurotransmitter is GABA. Now, I didn't mention this earlier because I didn't want to overwhelm you. but notice here, it's not just 1 GABA that needs to bind but actually 2 GABAs need to bind in order to let an ion through here. So I'm just going to write a neurotransmitter x 2. What is this receptor calledé
Well it's called the GABA A receptor and the reason it's called the GABA A receptor is due to the actual type of subunits that comes through that comprises this channel and also, the ion that goes through it. And we'll talk about GABA B on the next slide. What is the ion hereé Well, the ion is called Chloride. And so, what happensé Chloride comes into the cell and it makes the inside of the cell slightly more negative
and the effect of that is an inhibitory postsynaptic potential. So, let's put these all in context because it's kind of confusing unless you see it all together. So let's just say here is my presynaptic neuron and let's say here's my postsynaptic neuron. Now, I'm going to draw this a little different than you might see it because we're going to add something to it here in a second. So what's going on hereé
Well, we've got a different color. So we have an action potential right. It comes down the cell. We have this voltage gated calcium channel, this allows calcium to come in right. And so, calcium comes in and it causes the fusion of these vesicles and what are these vesicles containingé They're containing GABA. And so, from this presynaptic neuron, these vesicles traverse across the synaptic cleft and they will bind to a receptor on the postsynaptic membrane. So let's just say here is the ion channel, here is the receptor. That's what we're looking at right here.
That receptor is that one here. So here's step one, action potential comes. Two, calcium comes in. Three, we get the fusion GABA and four, it diffuses across. Five, it binds to the receptor and that's what we're seeing here. And so six would be the Chloride ions that are here coming into the postsynaptic neuron causing an inhibitory postsynaptic potential and so, that's what we see right here. Now, this isn't the only neuron that's interacting with this postsynaptic neuron righté We can also have an excitatory one that's synapsing here as well. So, I'm not going to draw everything like I did before but let's say we have all of these steps
but instead of GABA coming here, let's say we have (man! it's crazy how nice colors look) let's say we have glutamate. That was a silly comment. And so, with glutamate right it also binds to its own receptor but in this case, let's say, it lets sodium in and now, we have an excitatory postsynaptic potential. And so, what this cell is doing is it well it says, okay, is there more positive or is there more negativeé If there's more positive, is it enough to reach thresholdé And if there is, then maybe I'll list another action potential here and here are these you know sodium channels on the axon that allow charge to come through. Remember anywhere you block along this path, well you can mess things up.
Nootropic Smart Drug Review Phenibut
First let me say this right off the bat, because there seems to be a lot of confusion around this: PHENIBUT. This drug is pronounced Fenihbyoot. The name phenibut comes directly from the chemical name for the compound. As in, Î²phenylÎ³aminobutyric acid. What is Phenibuté Phenibut is sold legally in most counties as a dietary supplement.
Many use Phenibut as a â€œperformance enhancer.â€� Let me state this CLEARLY, I am not a nor medical practitioner of any kind. This review is based on personal experience and should NOT be construed as medical advice. Also, in the United States Phenibut is it not regulated by the FDA to treat any condition.
Because Phenibut is sold as a dietary supplement it can be purchased on the Internet and at many health food stores with other dietary supplements. In Russia, Phenibut IS a considered a legal drug and was actually developed there by the Russians to combat anxiety in cosmonauts without causing cognitive impairment. Which would hamper their ability to operate space capsules. It's prescribed by s under the brand name Noofen to treat a wide range of ailments such as, anxiety, insomnia, depression, in some cases PTSD.
Phenibut (betaphenylgammaaminobutyric acid) is a derivative of GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid). Unlike GABA, however, Phenibut can easily pass through the bloodbrain barrier where it binds to the GABA receptors in the brain. Compounds that bind to GABA receptors such as alcohol, can significantly reduce anxiety, produce moderate levels of euphoria and induce sleep in high doses. *My personal experience Now something to take into consideration concerning any effect I felt,
as always is individual physiology, purity of product, dosage, and all the other variables. They say part of it's anxiolytic effect is increased sociability, it's hard for me to gauge whether or not it had this effect on me as I'm already a pretty uninhibited guy naturally. But I can say that when I used this at work, it did seem to squash my aggressiveness to certain situations that usually make me want to break something. It's said that Phenibut doesn't cause hangovers. But I certainly felt some warbly â€œafterglowâ€� effects that resulted in some discoordination.
Symptoms that others have also described on message boards. So that seems to be real. Although, again as a non FDA regulated quot;supplementquot; air quotes, this could have something to due with product impurity. Who the hell knows. Anyone would be wise not to underestimate phenibut just because it's a legal dietary supplement. By that same token it's definitely not a schedule 1 drug, though it get compared to MDMA a lot.