Sleep disorders Processing the Environment MCAT Khan Academy
Voiceover: I'm sure we'veall had trouble sleeping at one point or another, maybe trouble falling asleep,staying asleep or waking up or maybe you're forcingyourself to sleep less because you have toomuch to do to lie in bed. But sleep deprivationcan be a serious issue. People who don't get enoughsleep are more irritable and perform worse onmemory and detention tasks
than people who do. So all this can be just a minorannoyance in everyday life, imagine the longtermimplications for let's say, airline pilots, firefighters,security officers or the person driving nextto you on the freeway. For example, one studyin Canada showed that the Monday after the Spring time change, so when people lose an hour of sleep,
the number of trafficaccidents increases sharply compared to the Mondayafter the Fall time change when people get an extra hour of sleep, the number of accidents decreases sharply. So that's just one example,but sleep deprivation also makes people more susceptible to obesity. When you're sleep deprived you'rebody produces more cortisol which is a hormone that tellsyour body to make more fat.
You also produce more of thehormone that tells your body you're hungry, so you end upeating more and turning more of what you eat into fat whichcan contribute to weight gain. And finally sleep deprivationcan also increase your risk for depression and one theoryabout this link is that REM sleep helps your brainprocess emotional experiences, which in turn helpsprotect against depression though we're still notentirely sure about this link.
Most people, now most peopleexperience sleep deprivation at some points in their lives, but the good news isthat most people can get back on track by getting afew nights of good sleep, sort of paying back your sleep debt. Your next question might be then, quot;How much sleep is enough sleepéquot; That's kind of a hard question to answer,
but most adults needabout 78 hours of sleep, but the exact number variesby individual and by age. Babies need a lot more sleep,for example, than older adults often sleep less than 10 or 8hours without severe detriments. Again everyone has troublefalling asleep at some point, but people who have persistentproblems in falling or staying asleep have a more seroussleep disorder called insomnia. There are various medicationsthat can help people
How Does Adderall Work
It can make you happy, suppress your appetite, reduce fatigue, increase your attention span, and it's used to treat narcolepsy, depression and ADHD. What magical substance does all of thisé Adderall. Reactions intro Over 25 million people worldwide use amphetamine, which is the active ingredient in Adderall.
Amphetamine has actually been around since the 1800s, and has a pretty neat history. First synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu, amphetamine appeared on the market in 1933 under the nameâ€œBenzedrine,â€� or Bennies for short. In 1943, the US army began issuing â€œpep pillsâ€� to fight battle fatigue and boost morale. These peppills were pure amphetamine,which is a stimulant.
By the end of World War II,American and British troops had shipped an estimated 150 million of these pills. Japanese and German troops also used these â€œpeppillsâ€� and Hitler would get daily injections of amphetamine. American troops continued using amphetamine well into the Korean and Vietnam wars, but stopped once the drug was
no longer sold over the counter in 1956. Because, you know, unrestricted access to pure amphetamine is probably not a good idea. Today amphetamine is used in LOW doses primarily to treatâ€¦ Wait. Whaté Oh. Right. Used to treat ADHD.
The majority of ADHD drugs stimulatethe central nervous system. You'd think it wouldn't make sense to treat hyperactivity and lack of focus by adding stimulation, but we'll let neuroscience expert Ryan Davison explain: â€œPeople with ADHD tend to have lower levels of dopamine, a key chemical in the brain's reward center.
This lack of dopamine means people with ADHD are constantly seeking stimulation. Amphetamine stimulates the release of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in the brain so those minor distractions don't cause you to lose focus.â€� Nerve cells and neurotransmitters act like they're at a middle school dance. Neurotransmitters like dopamine are on one side